Periodontitis is the advanced form of a gum infection in which the gums and bones that surround the teeth are damaged due to bacterial infection which results from poor oral hygiene. The condition often causes loosening of the teeth, tooth fall and other health complications .
Our gums and teeth are full of bacteria which are harmless until they grow in numbers due to poor oral hygiene. Whenever we eat, the tiny particles of the food get stuck in between the mouth allowing the bacteria to feed on it. This results in the formation of colourless and sticky plaque and tartar (mineralized plaque) on teeth.
When the plaque and tartar stay on teeth for longer, the bacteria multiply and cause gingivitis . However, it is the mild form of gum disease and usually gets reversed by regular oral health maintenance. When gingivitis is left untreated, the harmful bacterial infection extends to the bone of the teeth and cause periodontitis, a serious form of the gum disease which often result in gum decay and loosening of the teeth .Difference Between Periodontitis And Gingivitis
Gingivitis and periodontitis are the two types of gum disease that differentiate in their stages of gum decay . Let's see the difference between the two types.
Types Of Periodontitis
There are 3 types of periodontitis which are as follows:
1. Chronic periodontitis: It is the common form of periodontitis identified by chronic inflammation of the tissues that surround the teeth. The condition is caused due to accumulation of plaque and common in adults. However, it can be reversed with early treatment but gets worse if left untreated .
2. Aggressive periodontitis: It occurs mainly in childhood but may affect younger adults. The condition causes the rapid destruction of tissues and bone around the teeth and results in early teeth loss if left untreated. It generally affects black and male teenagers compared to the white race and females .
3. Necrotizing periodontal disease: The condition results in tissue necrosis (lack of blood supply) and infection caused due to the death of gum tissues, supporting bone and ligaments of the teeth. It occurs generally in people who have suppressed the immune system, like people with HIV or who are undergoing cancer treatment .Symptoms Of Periodontitis
The symptoms of periodontitis depend on the stage of the condition. The common symptoms of this gum infection are as follows:
Periodontitis is caused due to the negligence of oral hygiene. The concept is simple, if you don't clean your mouth properly, bacteria will build up and cause severe harm to the gums and bones of your teeth causing periodontitis. Here are the causes of periodontitis.
The final stage of gingivitis causes periodontitis in which a pocket is formed between the gums and the teeth filled with bacteria, plaque and tartar.Risk Factors Of Periodontitis
Several factors may increase the risk of periodontitis in a person. The risk factors are as follows:
Studies suggest that the bacteria which cause periodontitis can enter our bloodstream through gums and cause other serious complications of the heart and lungs. However, there is very little evidence to prove the above fact. Some of the common complications of periodontitis are as follows:
Shifting of the teeth which may cause problem while eating.
The diagnosis of this gum and bone disease of the teeth is carried out by the following processes.
Treatment of periodontitis is carried out in 2 ways - non-invasive treatment which is recommended during the beginning phase of the condition and invasive treatment which is suggested when the gum disease reaches an advanced stage.1. Noninvasive treatments
Scaling: To remove bacteria and tartar formed on the tooth surface by a laser or ultrasonic device .
Antibiotics: They are in a form of antiseptic mouthwash, capsule, gel or tablets. They are helpful to kill stubborn bacteria and reduce the size of infected pockets .
Root planing: A process to smoothe the root surfaces of the teeth and prevent further build-up of bacteria that cause inflammation, decay or loosening of the gums .2. Invasive treatments
Surgery: The surgery is performed to reduce the size of the periodontal pockets by making tiny incisions on the gum tissues to lift it. Also, if there's a bone loss due to periodontitis, first the bone is contoured and then the gum tissues are sutured back to place .
Bone grafting: The process is performed when the damage is done to the bone around the tooth root. A piece of bone either from your body or from a donor is transplanted to the infected or missing bone area which further helps to regrow the natural bone .
Tissue grafting: The process is used to stop receding of the gums and gum line. Here, a small portion of the healthy and soft tissue, either from your mouth or donor's mouth is transplanted in the infected area to cover the exposed roots and allow the formation of more healthy gums .How To Prevent Periodontitis