Diabetes insipidus is a rare condition that causes an imbalance of fluids in the body, which makes you feel extremely thirsty and produce large amounts of urine. In this article, we will discuss diabetes insipidus in children.
What Causes Diabetes Insipidus In Children
The kidneys help in balancing the body's fluid levels by removing excess fluid from the body and storing it in the bladder as urine. The body regulates fluid levels by producing less urine when you need to replace the lost fluid by sweating or by making more urine when there is excess fluid in the body.
The hypothalamus is a part of the brain that controls the feeling of thirst and signals the body when it needs water. It makes the antidiuretic hormone (ADH), a hormone that helps control how fast or slow the fluids are excreted.
ADH is stored in the posterior pituitary gland. When the body needs to preserve water, the pituitary gland will release the hormone into the bloodstream and when the body needs to get rid of excess water, the hormone is released in smaller amounts and you will urinate more often.
When there is an ADH deficiency or the kidneys do not respond to ADH, diabetes insipidus occur. In either case, the kidneys are unable to concentrate the urine, large amounts of urine are released which leads to diabetes insipidus.
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Diabetes insipidus can be caused by other conditions that include the following:
Babies with diabetes insipidus will show symptoms like high fever, irritability, poor appetite and failure to grow.
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A child is at a higher risk for this condition if he or she has a head injury, brain tumour, brain surgery, or kidney disease.Complications Of Diabetes Insipidus In Children
The doctor will ask about the child's health history, family's health history and the signs and symptoms. Based on that, a physical examination will be conducted which include tests like the following.
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The treatment of this condition depends on the cause. Usually, the treatment is done by providing antidiuretic medications, such as desmopressin which can be taken in the form of pill, injection or nasal spray.
To increase the production of ADH, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) like ibuprofen and water pills are recommended. If the child has nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, the treatment options are anti-inflammatory medications and diuretics (water pills).
Also, modifying the liquids that a child is receiving will help in the treatment of diabetes insipidus.To Conclude...
Diabetes insipidus can be temporary or permanent depending on the cause of the disease. Managing the condition can help the child lead a normal and healthy life. Children with nephrogenic diabetes insipidus can also lead healthy lives only if proper medical care is started at an early stage.